Rank Order Scaling (aka Ranking)

Rank Order Scaling (aka Ranking) is a type of comparative scale where respondents are presented with a set of objects and they are asked to rank them first, second, third, etc according to a criterion. Each rank is only used once.


The range is a measure of variability that is the difference between the largest and the smallest value in a set of values.

Quota Sample (aka Purposive Sample)

Quota Sample (aka Purposive Sample) is a type of non-probability sample where the required numbers of units with particular characteristics are specified.


The quota is the total number of interviews to be completed by a data collection company. Quotas may also be defined by the market, by product, by the interviewer or by rotation, etc.


A questionnaire is a structured technique for collecting data consisting of a series of questions. Questionnaires can be self-completion or administered by an interviewer, they can be completed orally or in writing.

Quantitative Research

Quantitative Research involves the collection of (statistically) large samples of quantitative data and usually some form of statistical analysis. Quantitative research is often used to substantiate the findings from qualitative research.

Quality Control

Quality Control refers to a set of procedures to ensure that interviewers follow the instructions provided by the sampling plan.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research involves the use of unstructured exploratory techniques (such as group discussions and in-depth interviews) that are based on statistically small samples in order to understand a problem further.

Qualified Respondent

Qualified Respondent: see eligible respondent.


The proposal is an outline (usually in writing) of how marketing research data could be collected and used to solve a specific problem. Proposals are normally written by research suppliers and they usually are divided into the following sections: background, objectives, methodology, costings, and timings.

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