Primary Data

Primary Data is data that is collected specifically for a current research project.

Pricing Research

Pricing Research is research that aims to determine how demand for a product or service will vary with changes in price.

Pre-testing (aka Pilot Testing)

Pre-testing (aka Pilot Testing) is when the questionnaire is tried on a (statistically) small group of respondents to identify any unforeseen problems such as the wording or flow of the questions.

Placement Test

Placement Test: see home use test.

Pilot Testing

Pilot Testing: see pre-testing.

Personalization Technique

Personalization Technique is a projective technique where participants are asked to ascribe “personality-type” traits or characteristics to an object or idea.


The participant is a general term covering anyone who is involved in a research study and not just someone who is interviewed, eg in an observational study or a group discussion.

Paired Comparison Scale

Paired Comparison Scale is a type of comparative scale where respondents are presented with two alternatives and they are asked to choose which they prefer (according to a criterion).

Paired Comparison Evaluation

Paired Comparison Evaluation is a study or part of a study in which respondents compare two or more test stimuli (eg products, concepts or labels, etc) according to some criteria such as preference.

Package Test

Package Test is a test that measures consumer reactions to a package or label.

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